Cambridge EnerTech’s

Chemistry & Materials for Lead-Based Batteries

Lead-Based Batteries for Next Generation Commercial Applications

13-14 January 2020

By 2025, it is expected that the global lead-acid battery market will reach $84.46 billion. A significant spike in technological advancements have created smaller, lightweight and long-lasting lead-based batteries that are critical to the development of the next generation of commercial applications. Using new composite materials and innovative design approaches, researchers are developing high specific energy batteries with long cycle life and low cost. In addition, creative improvements in the use of standard raw materials for lead-acid has led to a dramatic increase in the performance of these batteries. This symposium will provide an in-depth international overview of the industry including the latest trends, competitive analysis, and examination of the key players and their strategies for market growth.

Final Agenda

Monday, 13 January

8:00 Symposium Registration & Morning Coffee


Terrassen - Saal D

9:30 Chairperson’s Opening Remarks

Neil Hawkes, Commodity Analyst, Lead, CRU

9:35 Battery Micro-Cycling in Start/Stop Operation: Oxygen Intermediate Storage Acting as a Charge Buffer

Eberhard Meissner, PhD, Formerly Senior Technical Leader, Electrochemistry, Clarios

When a battery is operated in dynamic duty, e.g. Start/Stop Operation, parasitical gas evolution at positive and negative electrodes do not occur simultaneously. Intermediate storage of oxygen in the cell is of great help to reduce parasitical water decomposition, as oxygen is reduced at the negative electrode at any time of operation. This effect applies to both valve-regulated and flooded battery designs and is extending period of battery usability.

9:55 Depth Profiling Lead Battery Electrodes during Formation and Cycling

Fister_TimTim Fister, PhD, Materials Scientist, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory

Maintaining a uniform state of charge (SOC) through a cell is necessary to maximize active material utilization and prolong the lifetime of a lead acid battery. Chemical gradients, however, can arise under high current densities due to variation in acid concentration and non-uniform current distribution. We will present results taken during formation and cycling with variable acid concentration. These results complement prior tear-down studies, while providing new insights that could aid continuum modeling connecting the health of the battery with its average electrochemical response.

10:15 Limiting Acid Stratification in EFBs during Start/Stop Operation – Can the Battery Separator Play a Role?

George Brilmyer, PhD, Manager, R&D, Microporous, LLC

Through a number of improvements over standard flooded batteries such as compression and modified expander packages, the EFB is designed to better handle partial state of charge operation. Nonetheless, relative to its more expensive cousin, AGM, it still has its limitations. One of these limitations is what is termed “acid stratification”, the problematic formation of layers of differing acid concentration in the cell as a result of constant undercharging. This presentation will describe efforts to utilize the battery separator to mitigate this phenomenon through the novel use of scrims and rib designs.

10:35 Networking Coffee Break

11:05 Pb-Acid Separators: The Impact of Raw Material Selection on Structure-Property Relationships

Richard W. Pekala, PhD, CTO, Entek

In this paper, we examine the impact of silica properties (oil absorption, surface area, friability), and SiO2/PE ratio on electrical, mechanical, and oxidative properties of the resultant separators. We also investigate techniques to evaluate separator homogeneity at both the macroscopic and microscopic scale. Finally, we address the implications of our findings for SLI and EFB batteries.

11:25 The UltraBattery for Low Voltage Hybrids by New Positive Plate

Atsushi Satou, Research Engineer, R&D, The Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd. Japan

The 12-V flooded type UltraBattery, a combined lead-acid and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage device, has excellent high-rate partial state of charge durability, excellent dynamic charge acceptability, and lower water loss. In this presentation, new positive plate for the 12-V flooded type UltraBattery and measures for improving the positive grid durability will be discussed.

11:45 NEW: Advancing Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA)

Sachin Kumar, PhD, Lead Scientist, Battery Technology, Hollingsworth & Vose

12:05 Q&A

12:30 Networking Lunch


13:55 Chairperson’s Remarks

Richard W. Pekala, PhD, CTO, Entek

14:00 Present Status and Future Development Trends of the Lead-Acid Batteries – Market, Applications & Chinese Situation in 2019

Lu_MarkMark Lu, Industrial Economics and Knowledge Center and Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan

World lead-acid battery market was 46.92 billion USD, less than 1% growth rate in 2018. Although LABs are still among the biggest sellers in the rechargeable battery market, the future threat exists from the application demand change and replacement from other battery technology like LIB. Therefore, it is necessary to continue monitoring LABs’ relevance in the market and the future development on related technologies. 2019 market of lead-acid batteries worldwide: shipment, scope and future growth analysis. The current market and applications’ status in Chinese LABs industry in 2019 will be presented.

14:20 Global Lead Market Challenges and Opportunities in the 2020s

Hawkes_NeilNeil Hawkes, Commodity Analyst, Lead, CRU

The fortunes of the lead battery sector, under threat from the rise of lithium batteries, will be the key factor that determines the lead price path in this new decade. Can lead batteries respond to the threat and defend or even grow its share in some energy storage applications? In addition to the demand path ahead, the response of production, both in mining and recycling, will be crucial in determining whether lead prices are looking up or down as we move into a new decade of both challenges and opportunities for lead.

14:40 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)

15:00 Q&A

15:15 Refreshment Break

15:50 Chairperson’s Remarks

Christian Rosenkranz, PhD, Vice President Engineering & Product Development EMEA, Clarios

15:55 PANEL DISCUSSION: Automotive Lead-Acid: Advanced Research & Material Development to Meet Future Automotive Requirements

Rosenkranz_ChristianModerator: Christian Rosenkranz, PhD, Vice President Engineering & Product Development EMEA, Clarios

Cugnet_MikaelPanelists: Mikaël Cugnet, PhD, Battery Expert, CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission)

Fister_TimTim Fister, PhD, Materials Scientist, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory

Ola Hekselman, PhD, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials, Imperial College, London

The proliferation of electric vehicles and the electrification of the power train changes the role of 12V Pb acid batteries. This panel will examine how advanced research methods as well as material development can help to further improve the critical characteristics of the next generation 12V batteries.

Clarios 17:10 Grand Opening Welcome Reception with Poster Viewing

18:15 Dinner Tutorial Check-In*

18:30 Dinner Tutorials 4-7

20:30 Close of Day

Tuesday, 14 January

7:30 Symposium Registration & Morning Coffee


Terrassen - Saal D

8:30 Chairperson’s Opening Remarks

George Brilmyer, PhD, Manager, R&D, Microporous, LLC

8:35 CBI Technical Overview: Innovation Roadmap and 2019 Technical Program

Raiford_MatthewMatthew Raiford, PhD, Manager, Consortium for Battery Innovation

The newly formed Consortium of Battery Innovation (CBI) has developed an expansive technical program and innovation roadmap for lead acid battery technology. CBI (formerly the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium) focuses primarily on research and innovation for lead acid batteries, but also works on marketing, communications, and new tests and standards for the technology. A technical program of research projects will be presented to demonstrate opportunities for new understanding and enhancements of lead battery technology. CBI aims to lift lead battery technology performance to a higher level, driving sustainable energy storage improvement.

8:55 ArcActive EFB Technology

Bernd Engwicht, Director Automotive Battery Application Engineering, East Penn Manufacturing Co.

Micro hybrid vehicles deliver a modest decrease in CO2 emissions but offer large potential for market penetration due to low cost. In order to increase the impact these vehicles have in reducing global emissions, the benefits of increased battery usage should be consistent throughout the life of the vehicle. To achieve that goal, the battery must dependably handle large regen currents. Using techniques to test the battery when new and when aged, we will demonstrate the advantage of this technology in terms of CO2 emissions. A novel grid and pasting technology, teamed with the optimal battery design, make this performance viable.

9:15 A High-Power VRLA Battery for 48V Systems

Michael Gilchrist, Co-Founder, HighWater Innovations, LLC

This presentation will discuss a high-power low aspect ratio VRLA battery option for this application. With specific power 3 times that of conventional VRLA (1,050 W/kg 10 sec pulse power), this innovative battery design not only has the inherent recyclability/safety of Pb with multiple fitment options, but also offers the OEM a viable lower cost option for their advanced vehicles.


9:35 Dependencies of the Dynamic Charge Acceptance

Garche_JuergenJuergen Garche, PhD, CEO, FCBAT

Stop/start operations of cars is a relatively cheap way to reduce the fuel consumption and so also the CO2 emissions – about 10-40 €/% CO2. A prerequisite for that, however, is as complete as possible absorption of the break energy (which is dynamic and not constant) by the LAB. The dynamic charge acceptance mainly determined by the negative electrode is influenced by cell design and materials but also by operating parameters, e.g. T, SOC, charge/discharge history, and rest time.

9:55 Q&A

A123 10:10 Coffee Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing


11:00 Chairperson’s Remarks

George Brilmyer, PhD, Manager, R&D, Microporous, LLC

11:05 An Update on ArcActive Battery Performance

McKenzie_StuartStuart McKenzie, CEO and Managing Director, ArcActive

Having a battery that achieves high Dynamic Charge Acceptance and while at the same time low Water Consumption is the key technical challenge facing the lead battery industry. This presentation will provide a brief overview on ArcActive’s DCA and Water Consumption performance, as well as new test results exploring other performance criteria, as the ArcActive technology progresses towards market entry.

11:25 Understanding the Charge Acceptance of Thin-Plate Positive Electrode Using a Titanium Microgrid® Current Collector

Cugnet_MikaelMikaël Cugnet, PhD, Battery Expert, CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission)

A physics-based model is developed to study the impact of the positive electrode design on its charge acceptance. The design of experiments includes two titanium MicroGrids® from DEXMET with different thicknesses, and one pure titanium foil that is thicker, combined with different thicknesses of lead-dioxide active material.

11:45 Correlation of Dynamic Charge Acceptance and Impedance Spectroscopy

bauknecht_sophiaSophia Bauknecht, Department of Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Technische Universität Berlin

This talk will outline the correlation between DCA and impedance spectroscopy of lead battery cells with and without additive enhanced negative plates. Thus, several cells are tested and compared concerning their DCA and impedance spectra with reference electrodes before and after run-in. The test results are used to locate and identify the processes affecting the DCA within the spectra, this can be used for generating an equivalent circuit model of the negative half cell as a prediction tool for DCA.

12:05 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)

12:25 Q&A

12:40 Networking Lunch

13:55 Dessert Break with Exhibit & Poster Viewing


14:40 Chairperson’s Remarks

Matthew Raiford, PhD, Manager, Consortium for Battery Innovation

14:45 NEW: PANEL DISCUSSION: How Innovation Can Support Advanced Lead Batteries in New BESS and Industrial Applications

Raiford_MatthewModerator: Matthew Raiford, PhD, Manager, Consortium for Battery Innovation

Panelists: Tim Ellis, PhD, President, RSR Technologies

Herbert Geiss, PhD, Consulting Director, Pyramid Vision Consulting

Bernhard Riegel, PhD, Director of Research, Hoppecke Batterien GmbH & Co. KG

The growing ESS and industrial battery market is facilitated by the societal need for greater electrification and hybridization of the energy grid. Lead batteries are a key technology in this sector and offer many advantages based on sustainability and cost. This panel will discuss the areas of research and challenges for lead batteries in this market and what are important characteristics to improve for lead batteries in these markets.

15:25 Challenges in the Development for Long-Life High-Power Lead Acid Batteries

Riegel_BernhardBernhard Riegel, PhD, Director of Research, Hoppecke Batterien GmbH & Co. KG

The standard layouts of lead acid batteries involve traditionally the compromising of high power with cycle life performance at high DoDs. In our presentation we discuss the main requirements to achieve high power capability, large numbers of capacity turnovers (CTO) and the effect of the conflictive material properties involved. In the last years, a great progress for industrial battery applications (material handling, UPS and utilities) was achieved to overcome these limitations. This was made possible by the introduction of new manufacturing technologies, processing and the implementation of novel materials (alloys, additives, separators).

15:45 The Effect of Carbon Additives on the Short-Term and Long-Term Dynamic Charge Acceptance

Jochen Settelein, PhD, Expert Group Manager Lead-Acid Technology, Fraunhofer R&D Center Electromobility, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC

In this presentation, a comparison between the static charge acceptance, the dynamic charge acceptance after EN standard and the long-term DCA after battery run-in is given. Results from flooded 2 V laboratory test cells are presented which include a series of different carbon additives in the negative electrodes. A link between electrochemical properties of the negative active material and the dynamic charge acceptance is provided.

16:05 Q&A

16:25 Networking Reception with Exhibit & Poster Viewing (Sponsorship Opportunity Available)

17:25 Dinner Tutorial Check-In*

18:00 Dinner Tutorials 8-11

20:00 Close of Day

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