Session 5 (Joint session with industrial/stationary symposium session 5):
Battery-Charging Grid Integration and Logistics
In this session, EV ESS and infrastructure developers and related stakeholders will discuss plans to address the technological and commercial challenges associated with vehicle electrification and large energy-storage -system implementation, including: charging technology, grid integration, transportation, maintenance, recycling, and the environmental impact.
Session Chairman: Bradley Smith, Director, Nissan North America / US4R
As General Manager of US4R/Nissan, Mr. Smith leads the business development effort utilizing used Nissan EV batteries in non-automotive (stationary) systems, so called “second life” applications. Since 2012, Brad and his team have worked closely with Japan-based 4R Energy Corporation, a joint venture between Nissan and Sumitomo, in business development for new batteries from Nissan’s Smyrna, TN battery manufacturing facility. During 2013, Brad also served as Overseas Program Director, for the Nissan North America LEAF Program. Previous to joining Nissan Brad was Director of Business Development at eVgo, working with global automakers, and others in the EV infrastructure industry. During 25 years at Shell Oil Company, Brad served 10 years as Global Asset Development and Operations Manager in Shell Hydrogen. Brad received his BS in Mechanical Engineering from South Dakota School of Mines & Technology. Mr. Smith earned a Professional Masters of Business Administration degree from the University of Houston.
Exploring the PEV Market and the Role of Incentives on Purchase, Usage, and Charging Behavior Gil Tal, Professional Researcher, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis
The growth of the PEV market in the US over the last five years reveals a complex set of correlations between vehicle purchase, driving behavior, and charging behavior. The impact of driving and charging needs on vehicle selection is not as clear as expected for both BEVs and PHEVs. This presentation will explore the impact of vehicle performance, charging infrastructure, and purchasing incentives on PEV usage and purchasing using surveys from 2014 and 2015 covering 13 states and more than 75% of the EV market.
Specifically, in this presentation, we will:
Examine the impact of monetary incentives such as the federal tax credit on PEV purchase and usage.
Examine the impact of non-monetary incentives such as HOV access on PEV purchase and usage.
Review the correlation between vehicle performance, driving behavior, and charging behavior.
Discuss the potential impact of infrastructure investments and incentive changes on vehicle usage and eVMT.
Explore likely scenarios of market growth and vehicle usage in the US.
EV Batteries – Beyond Mobility Bradley Smith, Director, Nissan North America / US4R
The introduction of electric vehicles has changed the way drivers experience mobility and the battery that makes this possible is capable of delivering more than just passengers. Whether the EV battery is on-board the vehicle or not, this device has the power to change how we think about and use energy storage. This presentation will discuss applications/activities such as:
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) or V2X
Battery Assisted DC Quick charging
Second Life EV battery examples
Conclusions and Outlook
Impact of Standardized Module Design: Commercial PEV and Second Life ESS Applications James Paul, Manager, Ricardo Strategic Consulting
Standardization of Li-ion battery design has been a subject of discussion for many years. Proponents point to advantages such as predicted life cycle cost savings and improvements in reliability and quality. Challenges include rapidly developing technologies and widely-varying design goals and constraints. Commercial PEVs are proposed as key candidates for standardized module designs because i) duty cycles lend themselves to electrification and hybridization, ii) PEVs incorporate battery packs favorable for second use applications, iii) the total cost of ownership is significantly reduced when PEV and HEV drive systems are employed, iv) populations are large enough to significantly impact the second-use energy storage market, and v) these vehicles are favored by early adopters of new technology. An overview of a study on this topic, funded by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program, will be presented, including:
Market Analysis: supply of second life batteries originating with the commercial PEV market and demand forecasts for the utility-scale stationary energy storage.
Barriers to Standardization: definition of technical and commercial barriers to standardization and recommendations for addressing identified barriers associated with both 1st life and 2nd life applications.
Design Solutions: proposed approaches that meet requirements for both the supply and demand sides, cost analysis of standardized designs, and demonstration of a 2nd life grid-tied energy storage system.
Value Chain Evaluation: Impact of design standardization on battery manufacturing costs and value through the primary, second life, and recycling markets.
Battery Standards: Identification and evaluation of potential pathways for implementation of PEV battery system standards.
From Car to Grid: Automotive Batteries in Utility Applications Pablo Valencia, Senior Manager for Battery Lifecycle Management, Battery Systems Engineering, Battery Cell and Algorithms, General Motors
ORNL is performing grid application testing on a stationary energy storage system consisting of secondary-use electric vehicle batteries provided by General Motors. Pablo will discuss the utilization of automotive batteries in a utility application.
Second Use of Electric Vehicle Batteries for Community Energy Storage Philip Irminger, Researcher, Power Systems, Oak Ridge National Labs / General Motors
An important aspect to wide-scale energy storage acceptance for the utility industry is verification of the performance and life of energy storage systems. In support of this objective, a testing platform has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test energy storage units in real-world applications and analyze key performance metrics. Various hardware and software systems have been interlinked to represent actual grid conditions, while maintaining a high level of safety and robust operation.